Infertility is the situation where no contraception is used and pregnancy is not achieved at the end of a year despite regular intercourse. For a regular sex life, sexual intercourse should be on average 2 or 3 times a week.
If the age of the expectant mother is over 35, this period is limited to 6 months. In other words, if pregnancy does not occur at the end of 6 months, a specialist should be consulted without wasting time.
1) INSUFFICIENT PRODUCTION, FROM THE BRAIN, OF HORMONES THAT PROVIDE SPERM PRODUCTION It is responsible for 1-2% of male infertility. 2) PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE TESTES: INFECTIONS (Mumps especially after puberty)
GENETIC CAUSES (Chromosome problems in men)
UNDESCENDED TESTICLE Testicles that have not moved down to the bags after they formed in the abdomen and remain mostly in the groin area, noticing of this situation late, at the age of 6 and later, occurrence of damage to stem cells that provide sperm production during this period
RADIATION (receiving high-dose radiation therapy, especially for a tumor.)
The first test that should be requested in male infertility is sperm analysis. 2-5 days of sexual abstinence is required for sperm analysis. The father-to-be should give the semen sample by masturbation.
SPERM NUMBER: There should be at least 15 million sperms in 1 ml of semen.
SPERM MOBILITY (Motility)There are 3 types of movement of the sperm in the semen sample: 1-Forward movement 2-Movement in place 3-Still
At least 32% of the sperm must be forward motile. Still and movement in place sperms are not likely to fertilize the female egg.
The head and tail structure is important when fertilizing the sperm egg. According to the very special classification we call Kruger, at least 4% of the sperm should have a normal structure. This rate may seem very low at first glance. However, this is a classification with very strict rules. It is almost like getting a 5 from a teacher who grades hard and feeling happy like you got a 10. Therefore, it is very difficult to see 10% normal in the Kruger system.
In addition to these 3 basic criteria, the amount of semen, the number of inflammatory cells, and the vitality rate of inactive sperm are examined.
Sperm is the male reproductive system cell. In order to have a child, the genetic material in the sperm must be combined with the genetic material in the egg, which is called fertilization. A healthy sperm cell is very small and cannot be seen. A mature sperm cell consists of three parts: head, neck and tail.
It contains the head of the sperm and the genetic material that we call DNA. The head of the sperm has been created and designed to attach to and enter the egg.
The tail of the sperm, on the other hand, provides the movement of the sperm in the female genital system with spiral movements. The sperm produces the energy required for movement in its neck area.
Testicles are the male genital organ where sperm cells and the male hormone TESTOSTERONE are produced. There are also bags called SCROTUM under the testicles and penis. Testicles are formed in the abdomen in a baby boy and then descend into the scrotum. This descent is completed with birth.
The reason why the testicles are outside the body is that the temperature in this area should be 2, 3 degrees lower than the body temperature for healthy sperm production. So the scrotum provides heat, 2-3 degrees cooler than the rest of the body. This temperature is essential for the normal function of the testicles and hormone production.
Sperm production in men begins with puberty. FSH and LH hormones produced from the HYPOPHYSIS GLAND in the brain control the production of both sperm and TESTOSTERONE, which is a male hormone. Testosterone hormone is responsible for the changes seen in adolescence such as height growth, increase in hairiness, deepening of the voice, and enlargement in the penis.
Sperm production in the testicles occurs in special structures called Seminiferous tubules. Within these small filament-shaped structures, the tailless and round-shaped sperm stem cells, with the support of the Sertoli cells that support them, turn into mature, tailed sperm cells in about 70 days. Testosterone and FSH hormone play an important role in this production. After an average of 70 days, mature sperm cell development is completed.
Sperm produced in the testicles move to the EPIDIDYMIS. The epididymis is also in the form of a tube and is the part where the sperm begin to move. The epididymis opens in the sperm ducts. The sperm ducts then join the prostate gland and the seminal gland duct. Fluids produced from the prostate and seminal gland support the vitality of the sperm.
During ejaculation, sperms are drawn from the epididymis into the sperm ducts. The sperm canal contracts with the neural impulses from the brain and moves the sperm towards the urinary canal. Fluids from the prostate and seminal gland mix with sperm and semen occurs. During the ejaculation, semen is expelled through the urethra. There are millions of sperm in the semen fluid. Semen is a mixture. Semen is formed by the combination of sperms and secretions produced from the prostate and seminal glands.
The sperm count in men is not fixed and may show variability and fluctuations. Therefore, in order to be able to say that there is a problem in sperm analysis, the same situation should continue in 2 separate sperm tests performed 3 weeks apart. In summary, it should not be decided that there is a problem in a man with a single sperm analysis.