Tartar is also known by the names Dental Calculus. Tartar is masses that appear on teeth or dentures in the mouth and adhere to them. If dental calculus is formed inside the gum pocket, it is called subgingival tartar. Dental calculus formed above the gum level are called supra-gingival tartar.
70-90% of supra-gingival dental calculus is inorganic and the rest is organic compounds.
Since the accumulation of stones in the teeth will increase the areas where bacteria can hold,
If successful oral hygiene is not provided, the bacterial plaque formed on the teeth is calcified and turns into tartar in about 14 days. When enough time is allocated with the correct tooth brushing technique, the bacterial plaque and tartar formation on the tooth will be minimal. If bacterial plaque and tartar formation occur very quickly despite your attention to oral hygiene, you can learn the correct brushing technique from your dentist.
Tartar is considered as the mineralized form of bacterial plaque. In other words, tartar is formed as a result of calcification of an uncleaned bacterial plaque. Some filamentous microorganisms contribute to the formation of tartar by forming a matrix in this process. This process occurs with the hardening of the mineral salts deposited on the uncleaned bacterial plaque. The thick and sticky saliva helps the formation of tartar, while the more fluid consistency and abundant saliva secretion reduces the formation of tartar.
Calcium, phosphorus, bicarbonate, protein and carbohydrates increase the formation of tartar. Sugar has a facilitating effect on bacterial plaque formation. The softness or hardness of food is more important than its contents. Tartar formation is faster in those who eat soft foods.View More
If the bacterial plaque adhering to the teeth is not cleaned, it turns into tartar after a while. It causes an aesthetically poor appearance by causing both the dark areas around the gums and the swollen, irregular and bleeding appearance of the gums. In addition, as they are rough surfaces, they cause irritation to the tongue with the contact of the tongue.
Without tartar, gingivitis can be seen only in the presence of bacterial plaque. If the bacterial plaque is cleaned, the gum tissue regains its former healthy condition. With age, calculus, gingivitis and bacterial plaque formation increase. Tartar below the gum level is rarely encountered in children. Tartar plays both primary and secondary roles in the formation of pathological gingival pockets. Subgingival tartar (tartar under the gingival level) helps the formation of deep periodontal pockets by helping the destruction of periodontal tissues. There is almost always gingivitis in the mouth where tartar is present. Tartar is one of the most important factors as the cause of bad breath (halitosis).
The most common dental calculus is where the salivary glands open to the mouth. The inward-facing surfaces of the anterior group teeth of the lower jaw and the cheek-facing surfaces of the upper jaw molars are the surfaces with the most tartar. 90% of dental calculus is formed on the surface of the anterior lower jaw teeth facing the tongue. The tartar formed under the gums is most common on the tongue side of the lower jaw molars. In another case where tartar is heavily accumulated, it is tartar that accumulates in areas with missing teeth due to lack of function.
If the tartar is interdental, it can be seen by x-ray. However, calculus (tartar that exude in front of or behind the tooth) that receive x-ray in the same direction as the tooth tissue are superposed, so they cannot be seen on x-rays. Since only 40% of tartar can be detected on x-ray, radiography is not taken to see the tartar. However, radiography can be used to see the bone resorption caused by periodontal damage.
With the help of special ultrasonic devices, the tartar is removed from the tooth by vibrating at high frequencies. In the cleaning of subgingival tartar in the gum pocket, descaling and gingival curettage are sometimes performed with hand tools. Gingival curettage is the removal of unhealthy granulation tissue in the gum pocket. While descaling is performed, the thick plaque layer and tartar on the tooth are cleaned with ultrasonic devices or the most appropriate tools that will not damage the tooth enamel.
Much attention should be paid to oral hygiene in order to cope with gum ailments. Under normal conditions, 6-month periodic dentist follow ups are performed along with the examination of the whole mouth and dental calculus (descaling). However, in some mouths, more frequent descaling may be required. Because, the rate and amount of tartar accumulation varies from person to person. Tartar that forms above the gum level is formed much faster than tartar formed in the gum pocket. Tartar should be cleaned at the intervals recommended by your dentist.View More